Rabu, 10 April 2013

INDONESIA SUDAH mempunyai Kilo class Submarine ..???

* Minsera.Blogspot.com * 
Russia is an exporter of submarines and does not import them.

nb tolong baca paragraph 4


The Soviet and later Russian nuclear submarine program involved a variety of industrial enterprises. It encompassed an expansive network of research, design, and production centers, including the world's largest shipbuilding complex, known today as the Russian State Center for Atomic Shipbuilding (GRTsAS) in Severodvinsk, made up of two shipyards: the Northern Machine-Building Enterprise (more commonly referred to as Sevmash) and the Zvezdochka State Machine-Building Enterprise. The Severodvinsk shipyards are involved in the design, construction, testing, repair, and decommissioning of nuclear-powered ships.
Submarine Tables for Russia

Russia's Submarine Exports

Project 865 Piranya (NATO Name Losos)

Previously, construction of nuclear-powered submarines was also carried out at the Amurskiy Zavod shipyard in Komsomolsk-na-Amure, in the Russian Far East. However, although the Zvezda shipyard in Primorskiy Kray continues to be used for submarine dismantlement, all nuclear submarine modernization procedures are now carried out at the Severodvinsk shipyards in the Russian Northwest.

To date, neither Russia nor the Soviet Union before it has sold nuclear submarines to foreign parties. However, technology transfer from the Soviet Union assisted the Chinese in the construction of their first nuclear boat in 1966, which copied but was not identical to Soviet Project 629 (NATO name Golf) class submarines. In addition, from 1988 to 1991 the Soviet Union leased a Project 670 Skat (NATO name Charlie I) class nuclear-powered cruise missile submarine, the K-43 (renamed Chakra while in Indian service), although the reactors were operated by a Soviet crew and the vessel was returned to the Soviet Union.[1] Since the late 1990s, there have been reports that Russia and India have been discussing the possible lease of a Project 971 Shchuka B (NATO name Akula II) submarine.[2] President Medvedev confirmed that the Kremlin was considering the deal during his trip to India in December 2008. One vessel rumored to be a likely candidate for the lease is the Akula-II class K-152 Nerpa, which made headlines in November 2008 after it suffered an onboard accident while undergoing sea trials in the Sea of Japan. A further indication of Russian plans was the creation of a training center in Sosnovyy Bor, where three teams of Indian naval personnel are reportedly undergoing extensive training in the operation of an Akula-II class submarine. 
Sosnovyy Bor, in the Leningrad region, is the location of the Russian Navy Training Center, which has working nuclear submarine reactors; the new training center building is adjacent to the Russian Navy training center, and likely has simulators, not reactors, inside.[4] The Russian Navy's Shchuka B submarines are equipped with 28 cruise missiles, each armed with nuclear or conventional warheads with a striking range of 3,000 km. However, the Indian version is expected to be armed with the 300-km Klub missiles already installed on the Project 1135 (NATO name Krivak) class frigates and Project 877 Varshavyanka (NATO name Kilo) class diesel submarines Russia has built for India.

Russia, like the Soviet Union before it, has a large diesel submarine production program and actively exports these boats. The height of Soviet submarine exports came between 1960 and 1980, when some 90 diesel boats were exported around the world. The most-exported submarine was the Project 613 (NATO name Whiskey) class boat: 61 submarines of this class were exported to eight countries. In the early 1970s, the Soviets also exported large numbers of Project 633 (Romeo) class submarines, which became the mainstay of the Chinese fleet. By the mid-1970s, the Soviet Union had begun exporting Project 641 (Foxtrot) class submarines.
 Finally, in the mid-1980s, it started selling the Project 877 Varshavyanka (NATO name Kilo) and its later variant Project 636 class submarines, which are the mainstay of its current export program. Contracts for 37 Varshavyankas have been concluded to date, including three to Iran in the early 1990s, as well as boats sold to India, China, Poland, Romania and Algeria. Additional countries that have recently purchased Project 636 Kilo-class submarines include Indonesia, who ordered two in 2007 at a cost of $200 million each, and Vietnam, who ordered six of the vessels in December 2009 at a cost of $2 billion. [12, 35] There are also widespread reports that Venezuela may purchase six Project 636 submarines in the near future. 
Russia has ambitious plans for the export of additional diesel-electric submarines and Rosoboroneksport believes that it may be able to sell up to 40 fourth-generation vessels to foreign customers by 2015. [39] Both the Project 636 Kilo-class and the export version of the Project-677, the Amur-1650, are equipped with the Novator 3M-54 Klub-S integrated missile system. The Amur-1650 has also been fitted with a new anti-sonar coating for its hull, as well as advanced anti-ship and anti-submarine weaponry.

China has emerged as a critical importer of Russian-made naval equipment. In 1994 Beijing purchased four diesel-electric Varshavyankas from Russia, including two improved Project 636 models. It is believed that these four original vessels are scheduled to be retrofit in Russian shipyards in the near future where they will be installed with the Klub-S anti-ship missile system. [3] Today, however, China's inventory of kilo-class submarines has risen to twelve with the remaining eight being Project 636 or 636M variants armed with Klub-S missiles. [3] The order for an additional eight submarines was completed in 2002 and by 2007 all of the submarines had been delivered.
Five of these submarines were built at the Admiralty Shipyard in St. Petersburg with the remainder being constructed at the Sevmash Shipyard in Severodvinsk and Krasnoye Sormovo in Nizhniy Novgorod. There have also been suggestions that Russians have continued to have a role in assisting China in its construction of nuclear-powered submarines. Further, it is possible that Russia might decide to export nuclear submarines to China in the future, although no such negotiations appear to have begun.

In addition to China, India is a key export market for Russian submarines. Besides the possible lease of a nuclear-powered submarine (mentioned above), India has imported ten Varshavyankas (known in India as the Sindhughosh-class), six of which are equipped with the 3M-54 Klub-S missile system. [11] Furthermore, Russia is reportedly part of a joint bid with Germany's HDW for a sale of submarines and submarine construction technology to India. The Russian participation likely focuses on the submarines' weapon systems (Russia has been jointly developing the BrahMos missile with India.

The chief promoter of Russian submarine exports is the Rubin Central Design Bureau for Marine Engineering in St. Petersburg, which designed three generations of Russian nuclear- and diesel-powered submarines, including all of Russia's diesel submarines for export. Rubin showcases these vessels at international defense exhibitions. The boats are constructed at the Admiralteyskiye Verfi (Admiralty Shipyards) in St. Petersburg, the Krasnoye Sormovo Shipyard in Nizhniy Novgorod, and Amurskiy Shipyard. The Malakhit (or Malachite) Central Marine-Engineering Design Bureau, in St. Petersburg, has also been a major designer of submarines, submarine power plants (both nuclear and diesel), and submarine-launched weaponry since its formation in 1948. More recently, it has turned to the design and production of mini-submarines, for military and civilian uses.

nih yang ane maksud
countries that have recently purchased Project 636 Kilo-class submarines include Indonesia, who ordered two in 2007 at a cost of $200 million each, and Vietnam, who ordered six of the vessels in December 2009 at a cost of $2 billion. [12, 35]
******* dalam kategori negara2 tambahan yang telah disetujui untuk membeli kapal selam, termasuk didalamnya adalah INDONESIA yang pada 2007 telah memboyong 2 kelas kilo dg harga masing-masing 200 juta dolar per unit dg pembayaran langsung, berbeda dg vietnam yg memesan 6 kelas kilo dg sistem pembayaran diangsur/pinjam lunak berjangka*******

link: http://www.nti.org/analysis/articles/russia-submarine-import-and-export-behavior/

1 komentar:

  1. alhamdulillah. skrg KS selevel Varshavyanka/kilo apa y? scorpene ato yg mana.....
    ap g sebaiknya juga TOT sekelas KS borei ato yasen, mengingat TOT dgn CBG u-209 kok kyaknya nanggung gitu...jalasveva jayamahe.thks share infonya